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Guest Posting & Responding Now Available

Dinar Chronicles is now allowing viewers to guest post and respond to articles. If you wish to respond or speak your mind and write a post/article or about the current situation relating to Iraq, the RV, the GCR and so on. You may now send in an entry.

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"Transtender" - GCR/RV Op-Ed - Thursday - July 26, 2017

Received via email at 1:10 AM EDT for publication. ~ Dinar Chronicles It was revealed here that the USA, Inc. went bankrupt in 1933 afte...

Thursday, July 27, 2017

The Clarion Call w/ Yosef, Showme - Call Numbers Update 7-27-17

The Clarion Call

Human Angels Only
Topic: Post Traumatic Sudden Wealth Syndrome
Hosts: Yosef, Showme
11:11pm EDT
July 27, 2107


Dial-in Number: (641) 715-0863
Access Code: 871220


Dial-in Number: 641-715-0867
Access Code: 264858

International Dial-in Numbers:

Afghanistan +93 72 989 0516
Argentina +54 341 527-2967
Australia +61 3 8672 0152
Austria +43 1 2650513
Bulgaria +359 2 495 1543
Costa Rica +506 4000 3925
Dominican Republic +1 829-239-8024
Estonia +372 614 8076
Guatemala +502 2458 1414
Iceland +354 539 0325
Lithuania +370 46 268634
Luxembourg +352 20 30 10 94
Netherlands +31 6 35205052
New Zealand +64 6-928 7520
Pakistan +92 21 37130638
Russian Federation +7 499 371-06-82
South Africa +27 87 825 0127
South Korea +82 70-7686-0600
Sri Lanka +94 11 5 896974
Switzerland +41 44 595 90 54
United Kingdom +44 330 998 1210
United States +1 641-715-0863

"Message for Yosef Re: Clarion Call Replays" by Sierra - 7.27.17

Entry Submitted by Sierra at 5:05 PM EDT on July 27, 2017

Yosef, I understand your desire to step into the new with the Clarion Calls. You have created a beautiful positive atmosphere on these calls that gives us lightworker currency holders great hope for our humanity work.

However, I agree with Rev Doc. I live in New Zealand and I cannot participate in the live calls. Like Rev Doc, I very much look forward to communing with you on the calls.

You are clearly further ahead with the GCR than we are, and it's to your unselfish credit that you continue to post on DC to keep us informed. I imagine intel seems like 'old news' to you now.

However to those of us still back here in the trenches, wading through the mud, holding our lanterns high, intel is still our much needed sustenance. We are praying that we will have the strength to endure and get to do our work for humanity.

Therefore please balance the old and the new for a little longer, for our sakes.

You are holding the Light for us, and we are holding it for those further down the line behind us. That's how the bridge between the third and fifth dimension is created. We love you for your devotion to humanity.

Much Love and Light DC family


"Re: She Who Walks in Spirit, Faith and Yearning" by Restive Sage - 7.27.17

Entry Submitted by Restive Sage at 4:50 PM EDT on July 27, 2017

"Dearest Yosef" by She Who Walks With Spirit - 7.27.17

I commend "She Who Walks in Spirit" for a warm and cogent expression of what many have been going through the past 18 months. It was honest and heartfelt and spoke to our dependence on factual intel and perspective from a very short list of individuals that we have come to trust. We want to be positive and keep the hopeful and creative aspects always at the forefront, but we are also human beings with rational thoughts. It is the nearly inexhaustible faith and the ineffable yearning for something better for our planet and brethren souls that keeps us on course. And our small but trusted cadre of intel providers.

Many of us have come to well understand the historical lead up to this and the dire need for the GCR. So many have developed amazing project ideas and humanitarian programs that will lead us into a new Golden Age. We are so heavily invested now in this process and marvel at its scope and implications, a process now integral to our state of being. Light workers, star seeds, savants, chosen ones...all are strangely, we feel, appropriate terms for ourselves.

I think the most difficult thing for me has been coming to grips with the very limited number of intel providers possessing real deep state intel. Considering the number of people involved behind the officers, bank workers, corporate leaders, bureaucrats, paymasters, group managers, military would think that more would come out. So many also have pretended to have intel here and there, which is always troublesome. Most disappear after a while, after they have had their fling, fading away with their pernicious lack of veracity.

I fully realize that there must be several layers of deep silence in a high-end process of this sort. Breaking silence could bring severe penalties. So, I find myself listening to the voices of those we rely on, seeking to find that timbre and pitch of truth that comes from heartfelt thoughts and emotions. I search for phrases or syntax that would betray a hidden agenda or an attempt to play us. And I admit this betrays in me a nagging doubt that I duly seek to suppress, to disdain until it fades forever. And from those select few, I have found what I take to be sincerity and truth. It's in their voice, in their word selection, in states of passion and in their spirit as expressed. I ask myself, why would they spend so much time doing this, day in and day out. Who could care that much?

I have come to believe we are truly blessed to have the select few that we do. They are few in number and maybe we don't need more than they; but I do wish we had more. More real deal back up. Information insurance/assurance.

As to the key voices I am listening to, I note a certain lightness of late, a kind of subliminal joy... in particular over the past week or so. From those we trust. Yes, there is a sense of definitive knowing coming through that is stronger than before. I truly hope this means something.

Restive Sage

GCR/RV Humor #2 (As We Accept) - 7.27.17

"The End is at Hand" - Thurs. PM TNT Thoughts/News



those who are thinking 2018 aren't paying attention,,,,they're swayed with all sorts of ideas not associated with the RV… looking at what was accomplished and had to be done in the completion of the removal of Mosul,,other wise, could of been processed in Jan

Delta from KTFA says he read in arabic that the lower denom were issued in May to the banks.

I remember that Netglobal,,combine that with yesterdays update,,affirming the atms and prices being adjusted

And their Mastercard being international.


Al-Rasheed Bank said in a press statement that "the general manager of Rashid Bank, Rashad Khudair, opened a banking office in the departure hall Babel at Baghdad International Airport where he will provide services to travelers, which include selling the dollar at the official price and buying at market price." That sounds good !!!

Things are happening maybe not fast enough for most but the end is nearly at hand.

Agreed,,,,the end is at hand,

now the IMF is in control .....well for the last yr ......THE SBA between the 2 nations is a step by step ......and they are on it ......believe me for the first time Iraq is doing something FAST

Iraq to sell new USD Govt Bonds -- The Financial Times reports that Ir​aq has appointed Citi, Deutsche Bank and JP Morgan as joint bookrunner​s for a new five-year government bond. -- July 27, 2017 --​s/

News Articles from KTFA Don961 for Thurs. PM 7-27-17


Don961 » July 27th, 2017

When the invisible hand disappears

27/7/2017 12:00 am
Dr.. In the name of Brahimi

Since the emergence of economics in 1776 and the launch of the economic institution Adam Smith, the hypothesis of the existence of a hidden hand working to achieve economic balance without the need for government intervention in it, and this hypothesis is subjected to field tests and intellectual debate is great, and this hypothesis was successful at the time of launch, A kind of balance achieved by the market mechanisms between the real economy and the monetary economy that prevailed in most countries and for more than the decade Of time.

The Great Depression, which hit the global economy at the beginning of the third decade of the last century, represented the true test of the validity of the hidden hand hypothesis. The market failed to return to normal equilibrium for more than four years. This failure.

As part of the search for the dismantling of this problem and the development of solutions emerged ideas of the Kenyan school led by John Maynard Keynes to confirm the existence of the hidden hand and sometimes disrupted the existence of the importance of government intervention in cases of failure that can be exposed to the market, The controversy arose in the fifties of the last century a new school led by Friedman confirms the validity of the classical assumptions with some modifications, and was used ideas of this school in the early seventies to address the problem of inflationary recession, which was the economy faced for the first time, and expanded these ideas with the emergence of Rissah supply side and the adoption of their solutions in 1980s.

These ideas have been popular through the adoption of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank for a long time, but the global financial crisis in 2008 and the accompanying policies of the government intervention has once again cast doubt on the ability of the market and the invisible hand to achieve balance without interference governmental.

What is important to me is to clarify these ideas and share them with those who believe that the economic solution in Iraq is the market hurdle away from the public sector and at the time when they agreed with them on the failure of the visible hand (government) in managing the economy, I find that our market does not have the flexibility required to achieve balance and thus disappear

The invisible hand, therefore, inevitably creates a kind of partnership between the public and private sectors The Iraqi Economy.

IRAN: Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Currency Change Requires Majlis OK

The Central Bank of Iran on Tuesday announced that the government’s proposal for changing the currency unit needs to be passed by the parliament.

In a meeting on Sunday, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s Cabinet approved the final version of a banking and monetary reform bill Several media outlets wrongly reported that the measure is finalized.

While rial has been used as Iran’s monetary unit in official documents and budget statements, toman was being used more commonly in daily transactions by citizens. Prices of goods are mostly marked in rials, 10 of which equal one toman.

The government and CBI aim to ease financial operations, as the duality of monetary units has caused confusion among traders and people alike. The move would also reduce the cost of money printing and maintenance.

IRAN: The 23rd International Exhibition of Electronics, Computer and E-Commerce (aka Elecomp 2017) concluded in Tehran on July 24.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

New E-Pay Services Unveiled at Tehran Elecomp 2017

Behrooz Imeni

Finance Desk

Iranian payment service providers unveiled new e-payment services and smartphone applications at the 23rd International Exhibition of Electronics, Computer and E-Commerce (aka Elecomp 2017) that opened in Tehran on July 21.

Money transfer via smartphone applications, mobile payment software development kits (SDK) and inauguration of mobile point of sale (mPOS) were the main focus of PSP companies during the exhibition.

Some of the most active and well-known PSPs and their new technologies presented in Tehran Elecomp 2017 are as follows:


Electronic payment company Sadad is one of the 12 PSPs authorized by Shaparak, the entity in charge of Iran's payment network.

The company started its activities in July 2014, focusing on three main fields, namely e-payment, production of e-pay applications and supporting payment tools.

The company unveiled the new versions of payment applications such as Iva and Pulse alongside new products for making SDK payment.

According to the company's CEO, Mohammad Mehdi Sadeq, Iva users can now pay their departure taxes and driving fines directly in-app.

"Money transfer through Iva will also be available from next week," he added.

Sadeq noted that Sadad has started working on mPOS devices since past two months and is determined to expand this new service, especially since there is a shortage of banks' GPRS POS devices and mPOS can be a suitable substitute.

"Another use of mPOS devices is that they can be an analyzer of POS devices. Those who use mPOS can install an application on their phone to save and manage all their bank card transactions," he added, noting that this service is not operational yet, but it will be within three days of unveiling the new device.

He noted that Sadad has 650,000 POS devices across the country, 150,000 of which are equipped with near-field communication systems and "we plan to extend the number of NFC systems to more than half of POS devices in the foreseeable future".


Parsian E-Commerce Company was established in 2000 and focused its activities on supplying and supporting POS devices in shops and banks' ATMs, offering e-payment services through Internet and cellphones and producing software systems for managing payment transactions.

This is the third time the company participated in Tehran Elecomp.

Pecco introduced new features of its mobile payment application known as Top during the exhibition. The company has put a lot of effort in introducing Top to people, which provides a secure environment for payment transactions.

According to Abdolazim Qanbarian, the company's CEO, Top also unveiled its money transfer service at the exhibition, which is currently available for six host banks, namely Post Bank, Bank Sina, Bank Day, Bank Shahr, Bank Parsian and Hekmat Iranian Bank.

The number of Pecco mobile transactions during the year to March 21, 2017, registered an increase of 109% compared with its previous year. Transactions also jumped by 259% year-on-year, which show that Top is finding its place among people.

"The online purchase of traffic permits and payment of landline bills are exclusive features of Top," Qanbarian said.

The company's chief noted that the new version of Top is ready for Android while the iOS version awaits Apple's authorization and will be officially published on App Store afterwards.
Pecco also introduced the latest version of gift cards that can be recharged as much as the customer wants through ATMs and the Top application.


Saman E-Payment (aka SEP) focused on mobile payment services such as Sesoot and a mobile payment gateway.

The SEP mobile payment gateway is actually an SDK that makes it easy for users to make their in-app payments without needing to use an external payment gateway.

The company did not want to fall behind other PSPs, therefore they have also launched a money transfer service in Sesoot app.

According to Farid Setareh, the head of research and development of Saman E-Payment company, the Sesoot app has been designed in a way that users do not need to upgrade the app frequently.

Asan Pardakht, Behpardakht Mellat, Fanap and Iran Kish Credit Card company were the other PSPs that participated in Elecomp 2017 and introduced their achievements and services.

"Sounds International" - Thurs. PM KTFA Thoughts, News w/ DELTA


Iobey777 » July 27th, 2017

Wow!! That certainly sounds International to me!!

Samson » July 27th, 2017

Rasheed Bank opens a banking office at Baghdad International Airport

27th July, 2017

Rasheed Khudair Wahid, Director General of Rasheed Bank, opened a banking office in the departure hall of Baghdad International Airport.

Al-Rasheed Bank said in a press statement that "the general manager of Rashid Bank, Rashad Khudair, opened a banking office in the departure hall Babel at Baghdad International Airport where he will provide services to travelers, which include selling the dollar at the official price and buying at market price."

He added that "the office will also receive the personal safety of passengers and a transfer from the General Authority of Customs, noting that the bank has a branch within the airport, which conducts all banking, including the opening of accounts of all kinds

DELTA » July 27th, 2017


Tsreddy3 » July 27th, 2017

Let me see if I understand. Delta says "Just got conf(irmation) on LD (lower denominations) issued ON MAY and COST by CBI". I do not understand the portion of "on May and Cost by CBI". I would appreciate some one clarifying the meaning of it.

VSDK » July 27th, 2017

Ooooooooook, I don't know why many seem to be confused about this simple statement when there's absolutely nothing non-understandable here... let's break this down for those who need this explained w/ apples & oranges...

"Just go conf on LD issued on May & cost by CBI"

"Just got conf on..."

on what? "LD issued on May"

Conf on what else?

"cost by CBI" which means, the cost of the CBI for (making/shipping, etc.) LDs...

Risk1 » July 27th, 2017

Now that's what i call confidence that they feel qualified to make such a statement and usher bonds based on their own financial merits

Article: Walkingstick: Iraq eyes first independent bond sale in a decade

Quote: “The new bond is being offered to investors without a US guarantee, leaving them dependent on Iraq’s own credit quality.”

Lobster » July 27th, 2017

Thanks WS......don't' think they could guarantee anything by themselves at 1182! WOW!

Godsgurl » July 27th, 2017

Wow - they are now going to have a Navy - guess they need to be able to move in international waters

Samson » July 27th, 2017

US consulate in Basra announces allocation of $ 685 million for the development of the Iraqi Navy

2017/7/26 17:35

The US consul in Basra said on Wednesday that his government had allocated $ 685 million in aid to develop the Iraqi navy.

"This assistance includes development, maintenance and joint exercises with regional countries on how to protect regional borders," Dayton told a news conference during which he announced the end of his duties as a consul in Basra.

"It is hoped that the amount will increase and provide additional aid worth 250 million dollars."

In another context, Dayton noted that "the US Consulate in Basra will launch the program during the coming period for women in southern Iraq," noting that "the program will contribute to build the capacity of women to work and entrepreneurship, including women widows of martyrs who participated in military operations against gangs.

Don961 » July 27th, 2017

Tourism Authority: We seek to organize the Silk Road Festival .. Austerity is taking place in international exhibitions


o Baghdad / Zahraa al-Jassim

The participants in the international tourism festivals are not interested in activating the participants in the international tourist festivals through a special pavilion displaying the heritage sites and industry we have in the religious and archeological fields, although these participations are a great attraction for tourists and investors in the tourism sector at the same time , According to economic specialists, and at a time likely officials of the Tourism Authority reasons not to participate in international tourism festivals to the financial situation experienced by the country, they emphasize today, are limited to the meetings of the Silk Road trade, because Iraq links the countries that fall on this road from the East Li West, which seeks with the World Tourism Organization, to hold a meeting of the festival in Baghdad.

In this regard, the head of the Tourism Authority Mahmoud al-Zubaidi said in an interview with (to the extent) that the difficult financial situation experienced by the country, contributed to the decline of Iraq's participation in international tourism festivals, explaining: Previously we were from 2010 to 2014, In London, Berlin, Dubai and Moscow, through the display of traditional folklore and folkloric products. Noting that the participation was not limited to that, but the delegation had a side dialogues with the participating delegations to consolidate relations with all, and open prospects for future cooperation.

But Zubaidi: But the austerity that passes through the country, without the continuation of participation in tourism exhibitions, which were limited to attend only without participation.

"We now have participation in the Silk Road, a tourist event held every six months, through a gathering of 33 countries through this historic trade route that stretches for thousands of years. Iraq is the link between East and West from China to Europe.

He added that he was revived at the level of visa facilitation between these countries and the work of a free market to display their goods and marketing their industry and heritage, therefore, the presence of Iraq in this gathering was effective and important, and we have several contributions through it to offer our tourism and marketing for tourism abroad, Another, we aspire and are now trying to hold one of its meetings in Baghdad, which we move to coordinate with the World Tourism Organization in this regard.

The economic expert, Ashraf Amara, has another opinion, which confirms in an interview for (range), that tourism officials in Iraq, have no background on the nature of tourism festivals held in other countries, although the participation in these festivals through an Iraqi pavilion Especially when it comes to the heritage, monuments and industry of the country. The tourism companies of other countries look forward to it. When I go to show my goods and see them in other countries, Religious or other tourism.

However, when there is no Iraqi participation in a tourism exhibition or a place where countries recognize the civilization, industry, tourism activity and popular industries through it, it certainly will go to other wings, which loses the country many important economic opportunities. Sent: It goes beyond the definition of price in dealing, which will be in accordance with the vision of the seller.Surprisingly: we do not know why Iraq does not participate in these festivals, especially as the ones who are responsible for all the expenses.

The economic expert reiterates: that Iraq did not participate in these festivals effectively and effectively, so that the last tourism festival held in Dubai at the end of last year, we did not have any participation, either in the pavilion of an Iraqi or through attendance, but also: If we had a real participation As some say in an impressive way, would have produced something concrete in the fields of tourism and service to tourist facilities in Iraq, and without any doubt that the country's tourism operators did not have active and influential participation in international tourism festivals.

Amara added: "In order to have participation in such festivals, we must first work on repairing the infrastructure in tourist facilities and in the governorates that contain these facilities whether religious or archaeological. We can offer the world the best way to attract tourists from all over the world, which will serve the country financially very much, at a time to carry the treasury of the state any money, because the financial returns from improving infrastructure by attracting investors and tourists will be very large.

Iraq is characterized by the diversity and richness of its traditional and popular products, whether textile or handicrafts, antiques and antiques. In the past, foreign tourists were eager to acquire them. But now, as Jafar Jawad points out, one of the workers in the field of folk industries: People are neglected, especially after they have lost a large number of their customers, Arab and foreign tourists. They bought large quantities before returning to their countries, and they paid us good wages. Mirdafa: Now we are trying to work to continue to give, so as not to die these popular industries, which are an important heritage of our heritage, he stressed: the need to participate in international exhibitions of tourism and popular products and heritage, which reflect the image of Iraq's rich heritage and culture.

Researchers in the traditional heritage industries stressed that it is necessary to restore Iraq's membership in the World Trades Council as a global cultural institution linked to the UNESCO organization, in which more than 100 countries participate as contributors and participants in international conferences held by the Council.

And the countries that organize it through the newsletters distributed by the news and pictures of the popular industries of its members on more than five hundred addresses around the world, and the Council works to exchange experiences, training and observation and contribute to the improvement of manual and popular production The popular tourism and craftsmen must work to improve their production, preserve the authenticity of their popular industries and highlight Iraq's cultural heritage in all that they produce and manufacture.

Don961 » July 27th, 2017

IRAN: In a 2016 test, China and Iran drove a train from the port of Shanghai in eastern China to Tehran in just 12 days, a journey that takes 30 days by sea.

Thursday, July 27, 2017

For China’s Global Ambitions, Iran Is at the Center of Everything

When Zuao Ru Lin, a Beijing entrepreneur, first heard about business opportunities in eastern Iran, he was skeptical. But then he bought a map and began to envision the region without any borders, as one enormous market, reads a New York Times article published on Tuesday. Excerpts follow:

“Many countries are close by, even Europe,” Lin, 49, said while driving his white BMW over the highway connecting Tehran to the eastern Iranian city of Mashhad recently. “Iran is at the center of everything.”

For millenniums, Iran has prospered as a trading hub linking East and West. Now, that role is set to expand in coming years as China unspools its “One Belt, One Road” project, which promises more than $1 trillion in infrastructure investment—bridges, rails, ports and energy—in over 60 countries across Europe, Asia and Africa. Iran, historically a crossroads, is strategically at the center of those plans.

Like pieces of a sprawling geopolitical puzzle, components of China’s infrastructure network are being put in place. In eastern Iran, Chinese workers are busily modernizing one of the country’s major rail routes, standardizing gauge sizes, improving the track bed and rebuilding bridges, with the ultimate goal of connecting Tehran to Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.

Much the same is happening in western Iran, where railroad crews are working to link the capital to Turkey and, eventually, to Europe. Other rail projects will connect Tehran and Mashhad with deepwater ports in the country’s south.

Once dependent on Beijing during the years of international isolation imposed by the West for its nuclear program, Iran is now critical to China’s ability to realize its grandiose ambitions. Other routes to western markets are longer and lead through Russia, potentially a competitor of China.

“It is not as if their project is canceled, if we don’t participate,” said Asghar Fakhrieh-Kashan, the Iranian deputy minister of roads and urban development. “But if they want to save time and money, they will choose the shortest route.”

He added with a smile: “There are also political advantages to Iran, compared to Russia. They are highly interested in working with us.”

Others worry that with the large-scale Chinese investment and China’s growing presence in the Iranian economy, Tehran will become more dependent than ever on China, already its biggest trading partner.

China is also an important market for Iranian oil, and because of remaining unilateral American sanctions that intimidate global banks, it is the only source of the large amounts of capital Iran needs to finance critical infrastructure projects. But that, apparently, is a risk the leadership is prepared to take.

Together Moving Ahead

“China is dominating Iran,” said Mehdi Taqavi, an economics professor at Allameh Tabataba’i University in Tehran, adding that the “Iranian authorities do not see any drawbacks to being dependent on China. Together, we are moving ahead.”

It is not just roads and rail lines that Iran is getting from China. Iran is also becoming an increasingly popular destination for Chinese entrepreneurs like Lin. With a few words of Persian, as well as low-interest loans and tax breaks from the Chinese and Iranian governments, he has built a small empire since moving to Iran in 2002. His eight factories make a wide variety of goods that find markets in Iran and in neighboring countries.

“You can say that I was even more visionary than some of our politicians,” Lin said with a laugh.

Since 2013, when the “One Belt, One Road” plan was started, he has had dozens of visitors from China and multiple meetings with the Chinese ambassador in Tehran.

“I was a pioneer and they want to hear my experiences,” he said.

Lin established his factories along what will be a key part of the trade route—a 575-mile electrified rail line linking Tehran and Mashhad. When completed and attached to the wider network, the new line will enable Lin to export his goods as far as northern Europe, Poland and Russia, at much less cost than today.

“I am expecting a 50% increase in revenue,” Lin said. “Of course, Iran’s economy will also grow. China will expand. Its power will grow.”

“Life is good in Iran,” he said. “The future is good.”

Iranians who spotted Lin driving between his factories waved and smiled. Having mastered a few basic phrases in Persian over the years, he said “hi” and “goodbye” to some of his 2,000 employees. “Iranians are hard workers,” he said.

Even when the boss was out of earshot, workers in his factories said that they were very happy with the Chinese.

“They pay every month on time and only hire people instead of fire,” Amir Dalilian, a guard, said. “If more will come, our economy will flourish.”

When completed, the proposed rail link will stretch nearly 2,000 miles, from Urumqi, the capital of China’s western region of Xinjiang, to Tehran. If all goes according to plan, it will connect Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, China’s state-owned paper, China Daily, wrote.

Track sizes need to be adjusted and new connections made, as well as upgrades to the newest trains.

In a 2016 test, China and Iran drove a train from the port of Shanghai in eastern China to Tehran in just 12 days, a journey that takes 30 days by sea. In Iran, they used the existing track between Tehran and Mashhad, powered by a slower diesel-powered train. When the new line is opened in 2021, it is expected to accommodate electric trains at speeds of up to 125 miles an hour.

More Than Transportation

Fakhrieh-Kashan, an English speaker who oversees negotiation of most of the larger international state business deals, said the Chinese initiative would do much more than just provide a channel for transporting goods.

“Think infrastructure, city planning, cultural exchanges, commercial agreements, investments and tourism,” he said. “You can pick any project; they are all under this umbrella.”

Business ties between Iran and China have been growing since the United States and its European allies at the time started pressuring Iran over its nuclear program around 2007. China remains the largest buyer of Iranian crude, even after western sanctions were lifted in 2016, allowing Iran to again sell oil in European markets.

Chinese state companies are active all over the country, building highways, digging mines and making steel. Tehran’s shops are flooded with Chinese products and its streets clogged with Chinese cars.

Iran’s leaders hope that the country’s participation in the plan will enable them to piggyback on China’s large economic ambitions.

“The Chinese plan is designed in such a way that it will establish Chinese hegemony across half of the world,” Fakhrieh-Kashan said. “While Iran will put its own interests first, we are creating corridors at the requests of the Chinese. It will give us huge access to new markets.”


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